Different Types of Stones Used in Construction

Different Types of Stones Used in Construction [2022]

In the modern world, different types of stones used in construction to give a building its particular appearance. And since different types of stones have different properties, it is very important to choose the right type for your project. Here’s a list of all the types of stones and their properties, so you can make an informed choice when it comes to selecting your construction materials.

What Is Stone?

Stone is a general term, but it can refer to any type of building material created from rock. A rock is broken down into its basic constituents such as sand and clay and then heated until the materials fuse together. The heat source used depends on what type of rock you’re working with. If it’s hard enough, the rocks are simply baked dry. For softer materials, the rocks are burned in a kiln at high temperatures.

20 Different Types of Stones Used in Construction

Here are 20 common types of stone used in construction.

1. Sandstone: 

Sandstone is a type of building material that is composed of rocks and minerals which can include quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragments. It is oftentimes one of the best materials for exterior construction because it has better compressive strength than most other types of rocks. It is also easy to cut and shape, which makes it perfect for architectural applications. This type of stone can be found in almost any color imaginable due to the presence of minerals like iron oxide. The sandstone is popular for many types of buildings, including residential homes, schools, commercial property, and churches.

What Is Sandstone Used For?

Mainly sandstone is used for exterior walls of buildings. But depending on the mineral content sandstone can be used for flooring, windowsill, kitchen countertops, etc.

2. Limestone:

Limestone is an extremely popular construction material. It is generally mined from the earth, and it has a high ability to resist heat. Limestones are formed by sedimentary rocks that have been compressed over millions of years, which results in their unique appearance. The most common type of limestone is grey-colored with some containing fossils on the surface.

What Is Limestone Used for in Construction?

Limestone is used for flooring, fireplaces, kitchen countertops, etc.

3. Slate:

Slate is popular for roofing, because of its durability and resistance to heat. It also comes in various colors, which makes it perfect for both exterior and interior decoration. The slate material is easy to cut and work with, but it has a tendency to break if not handled correctly during the construction process. This type of stone is usually mined from deep quarries and it has a distinct appearance.

What Is Slate Used For?

Slate is used for roofing, flooring, and kitchen countertops.

4. Marble:

Marble is also used for interior and exterior decoration because it has a uniquely luxurious appearance that is commonly associated with status and affluence. The marble resembles limestone, but it contains more calcium oxide which makes it harder than most other types of rocks. It is typically sourced from large blocks within the mountainside and then cut down to size so that different sizes and shapes can be used as construction materials. You may hear someone refer to something as “marble” if they think you’ll appreciate the finer things in life, such as expensive furniture or jewelry.

What Is Marble Used For?

Marble is used for kitchen countertops, interior flooring, and exterior cladding.

5. Granite:

Granite comes in a wide range of colors and it has a veined appearance due to its mineral content. The popular stone is also known for its ability to resist heat, but it is difficult to work with because of its sheer weight and density. Granite can be sourced from different regions depending on the color, which means you might need to visit more than one quarry if you want several different types of granite for your project.

What Is Granite Used For?

Granite is used for exterior walls, flooring, and countertops.

6. Bricks:

Bricks are inexpensive building materials that have been used in construction since ancient times. This type of material comes in all shapes and sizes depending on what type of brick you want for your project. There are even bricks designed specifically for making fireplaces or chimneys that can withstand extremely high temperatures without falling apart.

7. Gneiss:

Gneiss is a type of rock that is primarily known for its use as windows or floor tiles. Many people think it’s granite, but the truth is, gneiss layers are flatter and more tightly compressed than the granite which results in a different look and feel. The stone can also be polished to produce metallic finishes that resemble gold or silver.

8. Flagstones:

Flagstones consist of flat-surfaced stones that have been used since ancient times for construction purposes such as building steps and pathways for homes and properties. These flat-surfaced stones usually come from large boulder formations and they require skilled workers to cut them down into usable sizes depending on your project requirements.

9. Slate:

Slate comes in many colors, but it is most commonly seen in shades of grey and black. It has a smooth surface and can be used as roofing material for homes and commercial properties because it resists extreme weather conditions such as heavy rain or high winds. You can also use slate tiles to create interior flooring within your building if you want to give the appearance of luxury without adding too much weight to the structure.

10. Limestone:

Limestones are often found in white, pink, and grey color which makes them perfect for exterior decoration purposes or subtle interior designs that will not distract or overwhelm visitors with their appearance. The stones have been used throughout history during construction projects for their ability to withstand heat from high temperatures. Unlike granite, limestone can absorb heat and it does not become as hot to the touch as other types of stone such as marble or slate do.

11. Alabaster:

Alabaster looks similar to marble, but it can be distinguished by its more translucent appearance. Several types of alabaster are available depending on the mineral content used during formation which means you might need to hire a geologist or an artist who specializes in pale colored rocks before you begin your stone selection process. Alabaster is also known for its softness which makes it slightly easier to carve than other types of rock, but this characteristic also increases the chances of breakage if you are not careful when removing pieces from any larger block.

12. Onyx:

Onyx is one of the most popular stones that is usually mined within mountainous regions where the mineral deposits formed over many years due to lava flow. This type of stone comes in black and white colors, but it can also be found in bright green and reds depending on the mineral content. Many people like to use onyx for interior decoration purposes or around pools because it is softer than marble or granite which makes it easier to polish when necessary.

13. Quartzite:

Quartzite is a type of rock that deserves its own category because it consists of quartz, feldspar, and mica that has been compressed over time due to heat from lava flow. Quartzite has been used as an ornamental stone since ancient times for its unique appearance which ranges from pure black to shiny silver streaks. It is also one of the hardest stones available which means you don’t need to worry about breakage or scratching occurring to your project during installation.

What Is Quartzite Used For?

Quartzite is mainly used in countertops, flooring, and buildings. It can be mixed with other types of stone if you want to give the appearance of marble or granite without paying too much for the installation costs

14. Travertine:

Travertine is similar in appearance and feel to limestone, but many people like using this material because it comes in a wide variety of colors including red, orange, and green tones that resemble tropical fruit. The stones can be used for outdoor projects because they are extremely resistant to water damage, but you might need to polish travertine on a regular basis in order to maintain a shiny appearance.

15. Basalt Stone:

Basalt stone is another very tough type of rock that can form in large pieces or flat tiles and it comes in a variety of dark colors including black, grey, and red. Its strength makes basalt an ideal material for interior steps or exterior pathway design because you can be certain that the hard surface will not become damaged during installation nor when people are walking along with it on a daily basis.

What Is Basalt Stone Used For?

Basalt stones are used for exterior steps, kitchen countertops, flooring, and building foundations.

16. Gabbro:

Gabbro is usually found around volcanic regions because the cooling lava creates this type of rock after minerals have collected together due to heat over time. You can use gabbro for flooring projects if you want to create an unusual appearance inside your building while also enjoying the benefits associated with its durability against everyday wear and tear.

What Is Gabbro Used For?

Gabbro is suitable for flooring, exterior steps, and building foundations.

17. Onyx Marble:

Onyx marble is one of the softest stones available which makes it easy to carve designs into traditional Italian marble. However, you don’t need to worry about this type of stone becoming damaged or stained due to regular wear because it comes in deep black colors that are very well-suited for interior decoration projects including kitchen countertop applications.

18. Pumice:

Pumice is a type of rock that originally formed from volcanic lava because the hot, fluid matter was able to collect together during the cooling process in order to form small pockets within the stone. These areas are usually filled with gas because pumice was created when super-hot material was collected together before it could completely solidify. In fact, you can even create your own pumice stones by mixing together plaster and sand in order to make a homemade mold for this type of porous rock.

19. Syenite:

Syenite is an igneous rock that was formed during the cooling process of magma which means it can be found in many areas around the world because lava has a tendency to move across the surface via tectonic plates. Its appearance is very similar to granite, but syenite does not contain as much water inside its composition, so it is usually more durable when used for interior projects such as bathroom countertops or pedestal sinks.

20. Shale:

Shale is one of the most common types of rocks available today which makes it easy to find during excavation projects. This type of stone is extremely soft compared to other stones like granite or marble, but that does not mean it has no purpose because you can cut shale into small pieces and use them for mosaics. However, you will need plenty of patience when working on this kind of project since shale breaks apart easily along straight lines instead of crisp angles like other easier-to-cut stones.

What Are the Requirements of Good Building Stones?

Not all of these stones are appropriate for all types of construction, because the chemical composition, density, and hardness are different in various types of stone.

Here are some things to consider when choosing the best stone for construction:


Strength is the most important factor in the stone choice. It should be harder to handle heavier items, otherwise, it will cause accidents.  So you need to select stones that are appropriate for your construction projects.


To make sure your building can stand for a long time, you should use durable stones.  If you use ordinary stones, they may have problems with durability after being used during the construction process. So you need to choose them carefully according to their different properties and strengths.

Beautiful appearance:

Beautiful appearance is also one of the most important factors because people want to admire their work when completed.  You can choose specific types of stones according to what kind of design or color you are trying to achieve.


Another thing to consider is the hardness of stones.  It can be measured by MOHs scale, which shows how easily the stone is scratched or damaged.

Different types of stones have different levels of hardness, so you should carefully select them according to your project requirements.


You should also choose versatile materials because they are not only strong but also beautiful.  So the best choice is to use stones because they are very popular, especially when used for interior or exterior decoration.


Another important factor to consider is toughness.  It refers to how easily the stone can be broken and fractured.  Therefore, it is necessary to make sure your stones are all tough enough for construction projects.

Different types of stones have different levels of toughness, so you should always keep in mind their properties when choosing them for your project.


Cutting is the final factor to consider when choosing stones for your construction project.  Different types of stones can be cut into different shapes depending on their properties.  So you should carefully select them according to what kind of shape or style that you want.

Porosity and absorption:

Two other important factors to consider are porosity and absorption.  Porosity refers to the amount of surface space available, which allows it to absorb water or other liquids.  So this factor is very important when you’re using stones for bathroom countertops because they will be exposed to water very often.

On the other hand, the absorption factor is also important because it shows how much water the stone can absorb and hold.  So if you plan to use stones for building interior floors, it is necessary to choose ones with low absorption rates so that they do not warp or change shape over time.

Specific Gravity:

Specific gravity is another important factor to consider when choosing stones for construction.  Different types of stones have different densities, so you should carefully select them according to the desired weight of your building materials.

As stated above, it is important to understand the features and properties of each type of stone before using them in your construction projects.  If you plan to use them in large projects like building exterior walls, you should consider choosing stones that are strong but also durable and versatile.  On the other hand, when using them for smaller projects like interior decorations, appearance is the most important factor.

Thus, it is necessary to choose specific types of stones according to your desires, your project requirements, and most importantly the functions of each stone.

What Is Crushed Stone?

Crushed stone is a type of construction material that has been crushed into different sized pieces.  It is commonly used for building roads, driveways, and foundations.  It is also important to consider the strength of stones when using them for construction projects.

What Is Crushed Stone

What Is the Best Stone for Building?

Different types of stones have different features, so it is necessary to choose the best one according to your project requirements as well as other factors.  In addition, each type of stone has its own unique features and properties.  However, they can also be classified based on their hardness, porosity, toughness, cutting properties, and more.

So, it totally depends on your imagination and creativity when choosing stones for your project.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Is Different Between Granite and Marble?

Granite is a hard rock made up of crystalline minerals like quartz, feldspar, and mica whereas Marble is a metamorphic rock that can be formed out of limestone or dolomite after they have been subjected to high temperatures combined with pressure.

What Does Gabbro Mean?

Gabbro is a dark-colored coarse-grained plutonic rock that contains calcium-rich silicate minerals combined with magnesium. However, onyx is a rock that has been banded, meaning it is made up of light and dark layers.

What Does Quartzite Mean?

Quartzite is an extremely hard rock composed of quartz combined with feldspars or other minerals. On the other hand, travertine is a sedimentary rock formed out of limestone by the deposition of water.


We hope you’ve found this article helpful in your quest to better understand what types of stones used in construction. If you have any more questions, please don’t hesitate to ask.

Thank you for reading this article! See you next time!

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